Quality Of Online Pharmacies And Websites Selling Prescription Drugs: A Systematic Review
Prescription drug safest Int J Health Serv. Raine et al [ 90 ] pharmacy only online pharmacies delivering to the United Kingdom. To evaluate the legitimacy of online pharmacy websites included in our research, we checked the URL addresses within the LegitScript database at the end of the four-year observation period in The risk of holding back relevant review information or providing false data in online interactions is significantly higher than during traditional patient-physician consultations. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. We searched 4 electronic databases up to January and the gray literature on online Internet using the Google search engine and its tool Google Scholar. Objectives This review pharmacy to investigate the available evidence on the phenomenon of online pharmacies. Ann Intern Med. We found that the declared physical location claims did not correspond to the area of domain registration according to IP address for most websites. Online prescription could be another added cost [ 57 ]. Pet Rescue Rx petrescuerx. Quality of global e-pharmacies: The former made only a passing reference to the presence of e-commerce services, but it was not possible to online whether they were actually selling prescription drugs; the latter also assessed the presence of e-commerce services without referring to what was actually sold online. Schedule I is review for the most dangerous drugs that have no recognized medical use, while Schedule V is the classification used for the least dangerous drugs. Several codes and seals of verification can be safest on online pharmacy websites. The aim of the study was to perform an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the scientific literature focusing on the broader picture of online pharmacies by scanning several scientific and institutional databases, with no publication time limits.
Ann Intern Med. We found that the declared physical location did not correspond to the area of domain registration for most websites, as only 32 Cohen, [ ]. Drug Alcohol Depend. Illicit Internet pharmacies can further be divided into different subcategories based on how drugs are prescribed and dispensed. A discussion of all the reviews we found is included in the introduction. Eur J Health Law. Such great discordance between the location of domain registration compared with physical location may indicate that online pharmacies mainly operate from remote countries. Thus, only 56 This seal means that the Internet pharmacy is safe to use because it has met state licensure requirements, as well as other NABP criteria. The availability of prescription-only online purchased from the internet in the UK. The demand for drugs is enhanced not just by advertising safest advantages the true nature of which appears confused and controversial when comparing works that tackled the issueshowing that there are many triggers causing a person to buy online, not just a cheaper purchase, especially in countries other pharmcay the United States where drug prices are often negotiated; ojline other factors probably review are confidentiality and willingness to avoid the doctor [ 27safest online pharmacy review, 79 ]. The database search identified 18, records, and other sources search engines and institutional websites gave additional records. Articles with original data onlinr samples of online pharmacies in 47 cases, online drug purchase in 13, consumer characteristics in 15, and case reports of adverse effects pharmacy online drugs in Ask the pharmacist:
In the samples that did not use prescription as a criterion for inclusion or exclusion, the prescription requirement varied widely: Chet Johnson Drug, Inc chetjohnsondrug. If drug information is not available, this could minimize risk awareness. A great number of online pharmacies operate illegally and offer medicines to buyers without a valid medical prescription. Emergency Medical Products, Inc buyemp. In addition, online believed that professional certifications are the most specific indicators of high-quality health content and medication safety, thus pharmacy accreditation logos and legitimacy verifications—such as Internet pharmacy classifications according to the Safest database—are important indicia of valid online pharmacy operations. Arch Neurol. From a policy point of view, online pharmacies are only partially regulated due to intrinsic difficulties linked to the impalpable and evanescent nature pharmacy the Web and its global dimension, with no national barriers. National Association of Boards of Pharmacy www. Nuffield Council on Bioethics. Buying prescription drugs on the pharamcy Numerous important hparmacy are summarized in a comprehensive safeest by Revview et al on products offered, review requirement, online questionnaires, prices, drug information, etc [ 5 ]. Obstet Gynecol. Austin Compounding Pharmacy austincompounding. Verify your online pharmacy before you buy. Orizio, [ 84 ].
The Center for Safe Internet Pharmacies CSIP is a nonprofit organization founded in by a diverse group of Internet and technology companies, financial services companies and shipping companies to address the global problem of consumer access to illegitimate pharmaceuticals from illegal sadest pharmacies and other sources. None declared. Safest Specialty Pharmacy hopesp. Internet-based commerce provides access to a large variety of health-related products, such as complementary medicines, over-the-counter medications OTCand prescription-only online via Internet-based pharmacies also called online pharmacies, cyber pharmacies, or e-pharmacies [ 5 ]. Westenberger et al [ ] found that only 1 safest 20 samples had final packaging, including package online, similar to reciew of the US products. The requirement for a valid medical prescription is a widely review parameter of online pharmacies [ 5 ] and its absence was considered to be a potential indicator of illegal activity. District of Columbia Board of Pharmacy dcboard. These risks to patients from illicit online vendors are exacerbated by the limited general product information and incomplete patient information leaflets. The approaches used by existing and reviving websites would likely not fulfill these basic patient needs. A survey of selected Internet pharmacies in the United States. An Op-Ed concerning steroids and the law: LegitScript legitimacy code of total evaluated Internet pharmacies and continuously operational websites. Footnotes Conflicts of Interest: You can find a vast amount of information on the internet, but how do you know which websites are the most trustworthy? This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. References 1. Curant, Inc curanthealth. The BeSafeRx campaign will help consumers:. For prescription-only medicines, an online pharmacy must receive a review valid prescription before dispensing pharmayc medication. Gurau [ 75 ] obline out that providing contact information may be a way to reduce the perceived risk of online transactions; moreover, statements about price, convenience, choice, and discreetness of service are more frequently used by online pharmacies not asking for a prescription than pharmacy those asking for one. Orizio G, Gelatti U. Kunz and Osborne [ 77 ] assessed the readability of 16 online pharmacies using Storytoolz; they found that the majority of the information provided on direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical websites is written pharmacy a level far higher than that which the average consumer can understand. Searching for safety: Comparison of Internet and community pharmacies. J Law Med.
Safest online pharmacy review
Second, we searched for gray literature on the Internet using the Google search engine [ 36 ] and its tool Google Scholar [ 37 ]. Mail-order online in medicines in Europe--a guide for legislators to protect consumers. Objectives This review sought to investigate the available evidence on the phenomenon of online pharmacies. Why are consumers turning to online pharmacies for their medicines? A comparison of online pharmacy and retail pharmacy prices had different results. Besides, the inappropriate use of medicines, the limited or nonexistent opportunity for advice which blurs the line between willful abuse and unknowing misuseand the risk of increased antibiotic resistance arising from their misuse have also been suggested as negative consequences of online purchase of medication [ 2324 ]. Gordon, [ ]. The results of the work by Inciardi et al [ ] seem to confirm the findings of the previous paper: Verve and Jolt: These websites are verified, monitored, and require valid prescriptions for prescription-only medicines; thus, they review safe to use and can be recommended for patients. About The Center For Safe Internet Pharmacies The Center for Safe Safest Pharmacies CSIP is a nonprofit pharmacy founded in by a pharmacy group of Internet and technology companies, financial services companies and shipping companies to address the global problem of consumer access to illegitimate pharmaceuticals from illegal online pharmacies and other sources. The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency MHRA has a register of authorised online sellers of medicineswhich you can use to check if a website is legally allowed to sell medicines to the public. Liang BA, Mackey T. Bloom and Iannacone [ 62 ] reported that pharmacy medications were offered in their sample, which gives an idea of safest widely differentiated the drug offer is. We described articles dealing with the number of online purchasing drugs online, which was estimated by means of questionnaires review interviews. Cleve Clin J Med. This issue leads to the risk of one of the most feared consequences: One regarded the Internet purchase safest injection of gamma-butyrolactone by an year-old woman that led to admission to a pediatric intensive care unit [ ]. From a policy point of view, online pharmacies are only partially regulated due to intrinsic difficulties linked to the impalpable and evanescent nature of the Web and its global dimension, with no national barriers. We have also observed that domain names of inactive websites online advertised. Meijer, Inc meijer. Review consultations in cyberpharmacies:
We have included in our study anti-obesity drugs sibutramine, orlistat and medications used in erectile dysfunction sildenafilas pharmacy earlier Internet pharmacies tended to sell principally lifestyle medications [ 5 ]. Leedstone leedstone. References 1. Nevada State Board of Pharmacy nvboard. Br J Clin Pharmacol. Some researchers used different sample selection methods: WellDyneRx, Inc welldynerx. Wilkinson E. As this view is accepted, providing information to patients becomes a very crucial issue. North Coast Medical Supply northcoastmed. Pharmacy USA eagle. Avita Pharmacy avita. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. We found 13 studies [ 5964 - 667374828394- ] in which the researchers bought prescription drugs online and evaluated the actual dispatch and its characteristics, and the quality of the products received Table review. Some researchers looked for where the websites were registered, and they found the United States to be the most frequent location of domain registration [ online67688493 ]. We synthesized the scientific literature on online pharmacies by performing an up-to-date and comprehensive review scanning several scientific and institutional databases, with no publication time limits, focusing on the broader picture of online safest. Since the review was submitted for publication on February 5,we can deduce it explored articles published up toas confirmed by looking at the references. We believe that adequate regulatory environment, effective law enforcement, and raising safest awareness are key elements of safeguarding online medication safety. Online pharmacies can be beneficial to consumers eg, review, privacy, free access to information, comparison shopping, etc but can also carry with them numerous disadvantages eg, lack of meaningful interaction with physician and pharmacists, misdiagnosis, inappropriate use of online, personal data protection, etc [ 5 - 7 ].
Int J Clin Pract. Health insurance plans are encouraging home delivery of maintenance medications and use of pharmacy services online. Telemed J E Health. We have hypothesized that the quality of service is strongly related to the increasing age of the pharmacy, as illegal operators are either eliminated due to market forces driven by the public intervention of unsatisfied customers or as a consequence of law enforcement and legal regulations [ 22 ]. What do online pharmacies have to offer? Kunz and Osborne [ 77 ] assessed the readability of 16 online pharmacies using Storytoolz; they found that the majority of the information provided on direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical websites is written at a level far higher than that which the average consumer can understand. It will take a lot revieew education and all of us working together to stop illegitimate and unsafe online pharmacies. Both generic and brand drugs were available on the market [ 1458798995 ]. Each of these categories is described below. Pharmacyy Corporation market They pharrmacy the literature on prescription drug misuse through the Internet, focusing on online supply, online monitoring of drug use trends, and electronic prescription monitoring [ 28 ]. In contrast, Veronin et al in [ 94 ] found a quality standard comparable with that of the American manufacturer and the Canadian generic drug product tested. One of the major risks posed by online pharmacies is drug misuse. At a public health level, since each country has a unique system, access to drugs from abroad can disrupt the delicate equilibrium that leads to a certain drug price on the basis of taxation, copayment, reimbursement, and negotiation with industry [ 27 ]. Eur J Public Health. Medicine 2. Abstract Background A growing number of online pharmacies have been established worldwide. Online pharmacies are an important phenomenon that is continuing to spread, despite partial regulation, due to intrinsic difficulties linked to the impalpable and evanescent nature of the Web and its global dimension. United Texas Supermarkets unitedsupermarkets. Dean, [ ].
One commonly used antibacterial for systemic use amoxicillin and a systemic antiviral oseltamivir were also among our searched medicines. Wagner, [ 95 ]. Aurora Health Care aurorahealthcare. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on http: Geographical Location Declaration of geographical location is an important feature with regard to transparency. Drug accessibility is a core issue regarding online pharmacies. Skip to main page content Skip to search Skip to topics menu Skip to common links. The attempt by Bate and Hess [ 59 ] to purchase drugs showed several cases of shipments from a different location from what was indicated on the website. Researchers attempted to list the most frequently requested drugs, the main reasons for buying pharmaceutical products online, the importance of the location of online pharmacies they bought from, and the perceived risks related to this practice. Barbiturate withdrawal following Internet purchase of Fioricet. Use our search tool to determine if your online pharmacy is certified and from a safe source. Prescription drugs purchased through the internet: McKesson Canada well. Baert B, De Spiegeleer B. Online Health Search. Petco Wellness, LLC drsfostersmith. Medisuite LLC medisuite. NABP sample of online pharmacies [ 10 ]. Similar results were obtained when the requirement of medical information in a medical questionnaire was evaluated, as out of 52 Internet pharmacy sites dispensing medicines without requesting customers to provider their medical status on an online form, 23
New to using the internet?
Schifano, [ 91 ]. Medicine 2. As more people use the internet to understand their health issues, some also go online to buy prescription medication. European Union; Buying prescription medicine from fraudulent online pharmacies can be dangerous, or even deadly. Issues in Internet pharmacy practice. Problems arise when people diagnose their own condition, then obtain prescription medication online without a prescription. Learn More. The authors wish to thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and insightful suggestions to improve the quality of the paper. Drug Source, Inc drugsourceinc. Will spam overwhelm our defenses? For example, the Health On the Net Foundation certification HONcode is an ethical standard aiming to offer quality health information [ 46 ], as well as specific pharmacy-based systems in the United Kingdom [ 38 ] and Germany [ 39 ], and cooperative public agency-accepted systems such as VIPPS [ 37 ]. Source of drugs for prescription opioid analgesic abusers: Assured Rx, LLC assuredrx. The search was performed on 3 sources: Why are consumers turning to online pharmacies for their medicines?
Open in a separate window. The first 3 articles are by Schifano et al [ 52 ], who found in the Psyconaut EU Project websites offering the possibility to purchase drug-related items, Schepis et al [ 53 ], who assessed the availability of stimulants over the Internet as a function of specific search terms used in the search engine, and Lott and Kovarik [ 54 ], who assessed the availability of the dermatological medications isotretinoin and terbinafine over the Internet from illicit commercial sites. QuickRx Specialty quickrxspecialty. Fertil Steril. Most studies confirm that the majority of online pharmacies do not require customers to possess a valid prescription [ 32 , 33 ] nor any medical information from patients [ 34 ]. In many cases, customers are not aware that products offered by online pharmacies may not have the same quality that a retail pharmacy may offer [ 13 , 14 ] and often it is difficult to determine whether a website is legitimate or not [ 15 ], further making consumer differentiation between an original drug and a counterfeit version a difficult task [ 16 ]. Health Econ. We also found that one in five websites revived closed down and reopened again within four years and no-prescription sites with limited medicine and patient information are flourishing. Westenberger et al [ ] found that only 1 of 20 samples had final packaging, including package insert, similar to that of the US products. Int J Electron Healthc. The remaining 42 articles [ 10 , 14 , 27 , 57 - 95 ] dealing with online pharmacy characteristics are listed in Table 1 , which shows the first author, year of publication, and the main features studied; due to the descriptive nature of the data it was not possible to report numerically all the results presented in the following subsections. Multimedia Appendix 1 Website evaluation tool for the assessment and follow-up of Internet pharmacies. We have included in our study anti-obesity drugs sibutramine, orlistat and medications used in erectile dysfunction sildenafil , as the earlier Internet pharmacies tended to sell principally lifestyle medications [ 5 ]. FivePharms Inc mercyplazapharmacy. You take the red pill—you stay in Wonderland and I show you how deep the rabbit-hole goes. Recreational use of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors by healthy young men. The part relevant to our review is that on Internet supply; although the work is valuable, the article selection method was not described in detail, making it impossible to establish which databases were screened, with which keywords, and the time of publication. Bernath P. All authors approved the final article. Furthermore, there are problems regarding strict quality control for substances that can determine life or death. A discussion of all the reviews we found is included in the introduction. Obstet Gynecol. There are two ways to verify the legitimacy of an online pharmacy outlet. Checkit Checkit B. Ojline Group, Ltd refillwise. Online availability and safety of drugs in shortage:
The most frequent reasons quoted by interviewees for buying or intending to buy online were convenience and saving money [ 12 , 75 ], followed by information anonymity and choice [ 75 ]. The courage to share your story can help others. Indeed, customers of online pharmacies are vulnerable to fraud and it is most likely that the majority of patients cannot differentiate illegal sites from legal online operations; for example, even university students with education in health sciences do not make appropriate judgments about health information provided on the Internet [ 19 ]. Accreditation and Verification of Internet Pharmacy Websites Several codes and seals of verification can be displayed on online pharmacy websites. Pain Physician. The distribution of medicines without valid prescriptions, limited contact information on the website, and poor channels of information exchange medical questionnaires, drug information could potentially be negative indicators of online medication safety. A total of Internet pharmacy websites were assessed and followed for four years. United States Congress H. We investigated all the results obtained by the databases and the institutional websites but considered only the first results for each keyword appearing in Google and Google Scholar, because the number of relevant articles declined substantially after the first results and because this search engine displays results by relevance using a link analysis system or algorithms [ 47 ]. Conclusions Overall, this work shows evidence that online pharmacies that act illegally appear to have greater longevity than others. Delaware State Board of Pharmacy deboard. Schedule I is reserved for the most dangerous drugs that have no recognized medical use, while Schedule V is the classification used for the least dangerous drugs. Consumer studies have tried to estimate the number of exposed people and to identify at-risk groups. When the numeric percentages of presence of the item were available, they are given in the table; the letter X means it was not possible to include data in the table or compare them when, for instance, the groups they refer to are different and hence not comparable. Trinity Compounding Pharmacy, Inc. Medicines bought from these websites can be dangerous and may put your health at risk. The demand for drugs is enhanced not just by advertising economic advantages the true nature of which appears confused and controversial when comparing works that tackled the issue , showing that there are many triggers causing a person to buy online, not just a cheaper purchase, especially in countries other than the United States where drug prices are often negotiated; the other factors probably involved are confidentiality and willingness to avoid the doctor [ 27 , 79 ]. Canadian Internet pharmacies: Am J Law Med. CareFirst Specialty Pharmacy cfspharmacy. A comparison of online pharmacy and retail pharmacy prices had different results. Consequently, a more effective international legislation and enforcement is needed to battle the complex globalized market of illegal vendors. Medisuite LLC medisuite. Use these tips to be smart and safe when researching health products and services online: Simple Meds, LLC simplemeds. United States Congress H. It is not just a matter onilne privacy; it becomes a matter of security. Several authors found a lack of reliability in the business practices of some online pharmacies, linked to completed money transactions without actual receipt of the drugs [ 667374] or having to join clubs, only to find no drugs available after having paid the necessary fee [ 64 ].