Over-the-counter Medicine Abuse – A Review Of The Literature
Two specific websites — Overcount and CodeineFree — were identified and considered to provide a valuable service that was not formally recognised Reay, Despite such voerthecounter.com variation, common themes emerged and this Jordanian study typified several others in identifying five key groups overthecounter.com non-prescription medicines that were implicated in OTC abuse namely: A prescription is not required for [P] medicines, and pharmacy sales assistants are required by Royal Pharmaceutical Society codes to ask certain questions, which varies for what the customer says. Misuse of over-the-counter codeine-containing analgesics: Consensus reached in key areas overthecounter.com as improving staff training, overthecounter.com, overthecounter.com overthecounter.cmo information, and concerns about non-pharmacy and Internet supplies overthecounter.com commercial pressure. Data relating to the United Kingdom have been obtained from various sources. The earliest identified study was conducted in Census of students in US county using survey in Of the remainder, there was variation in the ages suspected and Ajuoga et al. Discussion This review of the literature has revealed a number of themes overthecounter.com data to inform understanding of OTC medicine abuse, However, what is perhaps most apparent is the extent of the omissions in the extant literature, particularly as they relate to the lack of: Prescription and OTC medicines accounted for 3. Structured face-to-face questionnaire of 25 questions. Food and Drug Administration. Over the counter drugs can be highly addictive. The findings are now described in more detail, organised in relation to the objectives described earlier — types of medicine implicated, scale of OTC abuse, associated harms, characteristics of those affected and approaches to dealing with OTC abuse — with an additional theme relating to terminology also being included. These included removing products from sight, claiming overthecounter.com were not in overthecouhter.com or not stocked anymore, alerting or counselling customers to the abuse potential of products, refusing sales, suggesting customers contact their doctor overthecountee.com supplying only limited overrthecounter.com. From Wikipedia, overtheclunter.com free encyclopedia. The aim of this article, therefore, is to undertake a comprehensive review of the international empirical and other relevant literatures, to describe current knowledge and understanding about the overthecounter.com of OTC abuse. Public and pharmacy customers in overthfcounter.com US states in approached overthecountter.com adverts. Medication falls into one of three categories: First, overthecounter.com, there were direct harms related to the pharmacological or psychological effects of the drug of abuse or misuse. Overthecounter.com of pharmacist confidence and general practitioner GP engagement and competing work demands were identified as barriers. British Journal of Sociology. Overthecounter.com Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine.
Non-prescription drugs, OTC medicines. International Journal of Clinical Practice. The aim of this article, therefore, is to undertake a comprehensive review of the international empirical and other relevant literatures, to describe current overthecounter.com and understanding about the range of OTC abuse. OTC medicine abuse is a recognised problem internationally but is currently incompletely understood. Drugs misuse and community pharmacy: As Lessenger and Feinberg noted, overthecounter.dom is a relative lack of literature relating to OTC medicines that may be abused, overthecounter.com, and only one previous review has been undertaken Reed et al. Misuse of over-the-counter cough or cold medications among adolescents: More information about medicines was suggested as being needed. International Journal on Drug Policy. Examples of these include some sleep aid tablets such as Nytoloverthecounter.com, human deworming tablets such as Mebendazoleoverthecounter.com with overthecoounter.com amounts of codeine up to Often, larger packs will be marked as [P] and available only from a pharmacy. Steinman focused on the adolescent US population and surveyed 39, high school students in one county and reported 4. Abuse of codeine-containing cough syrups: Considerable terminological variation was apparent in the identified literature. Younger participants were more likely to report this. Consumer habits and interests regarding non-prescription medications in Hungary.
Journal of Adolescent Health. Observation of model developed using expert conference discussion local stakeholders consultation; records analysed from participating pharmacies trained in using model. A survey in one English county. But you also need to be careful to avoid mistakes. The author alone is responsible for the content and writing of this paper. Women may obtain the medication without a prescription after providing proof of age to pharmacy staff and receiving any necessary patient education. Cross-sectional self-administered pre-piloted, questionnaire demographic and attitudinal data and semi-structured interview on medicine use, frequency, overthecounter.com, side effects. Some OTC medicines relieve aches, pains, and itches. Published online Oct 3. A overthecountre.com has been done examining consumer's perceptions about the risk of and access to nonprescription medication. Abuse and misuse of prescription and nonprescription drugs sold in community pharmacies in Jordan. To investigate pharmacist perceptions of OTC misuse, identify products used, alerting factors and strategies used. This is an open-access article distributed overthecountrr.com the terms of the Creative Commons Overthecounter.com Noncommercial License which permits overthecounter.com noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the source is credited. American Psychiatric Association; Evaluation of abuse and dependence on drugs used for self-medication:
Cough products and especially dextromethorphan appeared to be the focus of several studies and data from the United Overthecounter.com Steinman, ; Levine, ; Peters et al. Data relating to the United Kingdom have been obtained from various sources. Akram and Roberts To determine how pharmacists respond to requests for over-the-counter OTC medicines by patients on a methadone maintenance programme, overthecounter.com. Depressive effect and violent behaviour were positively associated with OTC misuse, and Native American youths reported the highest level of OTC misuse, with African Americans reporting the lowest. Over the counter drugs: However, overthecounter.com, such data are not unproblematic and in the case of some US data, for example, prescription and OTC medicines were often reported together. In Northern Ireland, Hughes et al. If a customer asks for a remedy, e. Other studies provided more equivocal pharmacist perceptions, and Pates et al. Severe hypokalaemia and weakness due to Nurofen misuse. Associated harms included direct physiological or psychological harm e. Lack of pharmacist confidence and general practitioner GP engagement and competing work demands were identified as barriers. To understand who is at risk of developing dependence to OTC codeine, and how products are used. One mixed methods study Nielsen et al. Terminological variations were identified. Methodological concerns have emerged in relation to the use of overthecounter.com, self-report and non-OTC specific data and the relative lack of qualitative research involving individual experiences of OTC medicine abuse. To obtain information from Palestinian community pharmacists about perceptions of OTC medicine abuse, suspected customer types and solutions. Expert panel judged on abuse. First, new prescription and OTC medications come on the market frequently. Antihistamines were the next most frequently identified timesfollowed by laxatives. Review strategy A thematic literature review approach was adopted, since there were a range of questions identified which a systematic review would have been inappropriate for, and also because including both review and empirical literature was considered overthecounter.com in mapping out the breadth of understanding in this area, overthecounter.com. Women overthecounter.com obtain the medication without a prescription after providing proof of age to pharmacy staff and receiving any necessary patient education. Cross-sectional survey of retailers pharmacies, supermarkets, health food shops of overthecounter.com near to eating disorder treatment centre. Food and Drug Administration.
Similarly, Sweileh et al. Journal of Adolescent Health. An example of this is diphenhydramine Benadrylan anti-histamine which once required a prescription but now is available OTC nearly everywhere, overthecounter.com. As Lessenger and Feinberg noted, there is a relative lack of literature relating to OTC medicines that may be abused, and only one previous review has been undertaken Reed et al. Drugs overthecounter.com and community pharmacy: The authors identified overthecounter.com concerns about the recording of such data, overthecounter.com, noting that OTC and prescription medicine recording by treatment staff was inconsistent, and may be due to not only the relatively recent inclusion of such data but also two further factors:. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. Severe hypokalaemia and weakness due to Nurofen misuse. Hypokalaemia in ibuprofen and codeine phosphate abuse. Since the passage of the Illinois Methamphetamine Precursor Control Act overthecounter.com the subsequent federal Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act ofthe purchase of pseudoephedrine is restricted. A harm reduction strategy was proposed by Temple whereby pharmacists would set a contract with individuals experiencing OTC medicine abuse to have regular supplies of medicines, reducing over time and involving detailed record keeping and adequate communication between pharmacies and involving drug team coordinators. Reflections on accounts of the risks of non-prescription medicines. Over-the-Counter Medicines -- see more articles. Consumption and its discontents: No clients were recruited to enable collection of quality of life data. Random sample of pharmacies in Jordan. Open in a separate window. As a general rule, over-the-counter drugs have to be used primarily to treat a condition that does not require the direct supervision of a doctor and must be proven to be reasonably safe and well tolerated. Others studies identified no difference Hughes et al. Misuse of over-the-counter codeine-containing overthecounter.com Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine. If a customer asks for a remedy, e. OTC medicine sales overthecounter.com were identified in two reviews, overthecounter.com. Drug abuse warning network,
Drugs Pharmaceuticals policy Drug safety. Overthecounter.com and pharmacy customers in five US states in approached via adverts. A prescription is not required; the change has been made in an effort to reduce methamphetamine production. OTC purchases were cited by If you have been taking an OTC medicine but your symptoms don't go away, contact your health care provider. Reflections overtheclunter.com accounts of the risks of non-prescription medicines. Data relating to the Overthecounter.com States have been reported from a range of sources, ranging from specifically collected national level data, to surveys of specific groups, such as gym users, nicotine gum overtheounter.com and high school students, overthecounter.com. Third, there were those harms related to other consequences, such as progression to abuse of other substances, economic costs and effects on personal and social life. Many empirical studies that surveyed pharmacists sought their practical strategies and a number of overthecounter.com approaches overthecounter.com Matheson et al. Male customers were perceived more likely to abuse or misuse OTC medicines in all categories except overthecounter.com and the 20—40 age range was most commonly identified. Cross-sectional telephone survey, eliciting views on past and current use of nicotine gum in first study and questions based on dependency diagnostic criteria from DSM-IV and ICD Examples of types of harm associated with OTC medicine abuse. Characteristics of primary prescription overthecountrr.com OTC treatment admissions: The most obvious example of this is the community or retail pharmacy, where the metonymic term over-the-counter OTC originates and is used to describe such medicines. Empirical studies have identified a range of often pragmatic solutions, but evidence-based interventions and attendant evaluations are a clear omission in this field. Comprehensive search of international empirical and review literature between and Constructing a non-addict identity. A thematic literature review approach was adopted, since there were a range of questions identified which a systematic review would have been inappropriate for, and also because including both review and empirical literature was considered advantageous in mapping out the breadth of understanding in this area. In the United Kingdom, medication is governed by the Medicines Regulations This may result in what has been variously referred to as the misuse or abuse of OTC medicines and their potential to cause addiction and dependency. Resources Find an Expert. Since the passage of the Illinois Methamphetamine Precursor Control Act and the subsequent federal Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act ofthe purchase of pseudoephedrine is restricted. Observational case series; semi-structured interview. OTC, over-the-counter; GP, general practitioner. Beliefs and social norms overtheclunter.com codeine and promethazine hydrochloride cough syrup CPHCS use and addiction among multi-ethnic college students.
An inquiry into physical dependence and addiction to prescription and over-the-counter medication. This page was last edited on 30 Januaryat Characteristics of primary prescription and OTC treatment admissions: Methodological concerns have emerged in relation to the use of proxy, self-report and non-OTC specific data and the relative lack of qualitative research involving individual experiences of OTC medicine abuse. Over-the-counter laxatives and eating disorders: Cross-sectional descriptive study using data captured for all treatment admissions to public addiction services, overthecounter.com. To provide community-level surveillance information of OTC and prescription medicine misuse. Life-threatening hypokalaemia from abuse of Nurofen Plus. Resources Find an Expert. On this page Basics Summary Start Here. Reference lists of included overthecounter.com were also checked and further searching was undertaken as a result. A drug that is UAD can also be sold at drugstores, stores where no prescription can be filed and there is only a relatively small selection of popular drugs overthecounter.com painkillers and cough medicine. Hypokalaemia secondary to renal acidosis was identified as a result of abuse of this combination product Chetty et al. Examples of these include some sleep aid tablets such as Nytolhuman deworming tablets such as Mebendazolepainkillers with small amounts of codeine up to The most recent study identified Nielsen et al.
To explore the feasibility of pharmacoepidemiological methods and to investigate misuse of self-medicated drugs. Two-stage random sampled using residents of Zawan B ward district of Jos, Nigeria. The latter are available for purchase in many countries and combine codeine or dihydrocodeine with either ibuprofen or paracetamol and have led to particular concerns about addiction and also gastric or hepatic damage, respectively Reay, ; Frei et al. Cross-sectional survey using structured questionnaire in — Other direct problems included convulsions and acidosis due to a codeine and antihistamine diphenhydramine containing antitussive medicine Murao et al. Addiction, identity and the problems of freedom. This appeared to involve dextromethorphan, a cough suppressant, in different products. Associated harms included direct physiological or psychological harm e. OTC medicine abuse is a recognised problem internationally but is currently incompletely understood. Abuse of proprietary over-the-counter drugs. More recent examples are cimetidine and loratadine in the United States, and ibuprofen in Australia. Searches were undertaken for publications from to and inclusion criteria included publications published in English, empirical, review or opinion pieces. Akram and Roberts To determine how pharmacists respond to requests for over-the-counter OTC medicines by patients on a methadone maintenance programme. Over-the-counter drug use in gymnasiums: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. To explore expert views on OTC abuse, current, future strategies and best practice. All Northern Ireland community pharmacies in You should not take OTC medicines longer or in higher doses than the label recommends.
Knowledge, risk perception and practices related to antibiotic resistance among All pharmacies in Nablus district, Palestine. Despite such international variation, common themes emerged and this Jordanian study typified several others in identifying five key groups of non-prescription medicines that were implicated in OTC abuse namely: This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. OTC medicine abuse is a recognised problem internationally but is currently incompletely understood. Frequency of OTC medicine misuse assessed with one question. Use and abuse of over-the-counter analgesic agents. In Canada , there are four drug schedules: Addiction, identity and the problems of freedom. In Jordan, for example, antibiotics and benzodiazepines were commonly cited by pharmacists as being abused, as regulations restricting their supply were not always enforced Albsoul-Younes et al. The range of medicines available is often more restrictive compared to prescribed medicines, and there are often limitations to indications and doses, although there has been a trend towards increasing deregulation of medicines from prescription to OTC supply and most recently availability from Internet pharmacies Bessell et al. Serious morbidity associated with misuse of over-the-counter codeine-ibuprofen analgesics: For example, many drugstores have moved products containing pseudoephedrine , an OTC product, into locations where customers must ask a pharmacist for them. American Psychiatric Association; To study socio-demographic and clinical profiled of patients seeking treatment for codeine-based cough medicines in India. See, Play and Learn No links available. This may result in what has been variously referred to as the misuse or abuse of OTC medicines and their potential to cause addiction and dependency. Ford and Good noted the side effects relating to ibuprofen and Dutch reported both patients having perforated gastric ulcers. The latter are available for purchase in many countries and combine codeine or dihydrocodeine with either ibuprofen or paracetamol and have led to particular concerns about addiction and also gastric or hepatic damage, respectively Reay, ; Frei et al. Over-the-counter and prescription medicine misuse in Cape Town — Findings from specialist treatment centres. Retrieved from " https: Similarly, Sweileh et al. To examine treatment admission patterns to addiction system for primary abuse of prescription and OTC drugs, differentiating between adolescents and adults. Thus, an OTC drug product is allowed to be marketed either 1 pursuant to an FDA monograph or 2 pursuant to an NDA for products that do not fit within a specific monograph. Misuse of over-the-counter codeine-containing analgesics: As ofaround a third of older adults overthecounter.com the U. As Akram noted, however, this is unfortunate because it does not distinguish between misuse and abuse as separate problems, although some overthecounter.com to do this were identified in the literature:. But whilst this may arguably warn those using products for overthecountee.com first time, overthecounter.com, for those with an existing problem, more support may be needed in the clinical pathway. In terms of agency, it is interesting to reflect on the distinction between misuse and abuse in some of the extant literature, since this appears to recognise a difference between intentionally experimenting with a overthecounter.ckm to elicit a different effect overthecounter.com abusing it, and unintentionally deviating from standard use taking at different dose or indication and therefore misusing it. If it is not appropriate to sell a 'P' medication — i. A range of problems and harms associated with OTC medicine abuse were identified and these comprised three broad categories Fig. A pilot study to investigate over-the-counter drug abuse and misuse in Palestine, overthecounter.com.
Research Statistics and Research Journal Articles. Over time, often 3—6 years, drugs that prove themselves safe and appropriate as prescription medicines may be switched from prescription to OTC. No clients were recruited to enable collection of quality of life data. You should not take OTC medicines longer or in higher doses than the label recommends. In first part of study, contacts led to participants. Interventions and support A range of strategies were identified that were aimed at minimising the harm associated with OTC medicine abuse, and supporting and treating affected individuals, although there was no evidence of any associated evaluation of these. Methodologically, studies varied as to whether they focused on a particular product or sought to capture the range of products involved. Steinman focused on the adolescent US population and surveyed 39, high school students in one county and reported 4. Cross-sectional descriptive study using data captured for all treatment admissions to public addiction services. Triclosan in over the counter medicines of South China. Buying non-prescription and complementary medicines via the Internet. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Data relating to the United States have been reported from a range of sources, ranging from specifically collected national level data, to surveys of specific groups, such as gym users, nicotine gum users and high school students. Some people are allergic to certain medicines Many medicines are not safe during pregnancy. In the United Kingdom, medication is governed by the Medicines Regulations Antihistamines were the next most frequently identified times , followed by laxatives. The mechanisms by which individuals can obtain medicines include not only their traditional prescribing by doctors, but also the ability to purchase medicines directly. These included removing products from sight, claiming products were not in stock or not stocked anymore, alerting or counselling customers to the abuse potential of products, refusing sales, suggesting customers contact their doctor and supplying only limited amounts. The impact of increased access. Two studies sampled pharmacy customers: All community pharmacists in Glasgow health board, Scotland. Pharmacists perceived methadone patient requests not to be genuine on overthecounter.com. For example, people with high blood pressure should not take certain decongestants. To explore the feasibility of pharmacoepidemiological methods and to investigate misuse overthecounter.com self-medicated drugs.